雅思写作中如何应用同位语?

雅思写作同位语从句简介

许多学生在雅思写作时,一直写成不正确的同位语从句.因此,今日就来谈一谈,雅思写作中同位语从句的使用说明.

Ø 同位语从句一般 由“that”引导,后边能够引导同位语从句的专有名词有advice、demand、doubt、fact、hope、idea、information、message、news、order、problem、promise、question、request、view、suggestion、truth、wish等

雅思写作列句:

I agree with the view that the benefits brought by the spread of English outweigh the problems it has caused.

针对英文的散播所产生的益处超出它所导致的难题这一见解,我表示同意.

The fact that online shopping has been growing extremely rapidly in the past few years seems to show that many shoppers have focused on the benefits brought by online shopping.

网上购物过去两年内迅猛发展这一客观事实,好像说明很多顾客现阶段关心大量的是网上购物所产生的众多益处.

Ø “that”做为关系代词引导定语从句时,假如在定语从句中作宾语,“that”能够省略;“that”引导同位语从句时,起连词的功效,沒有现实意义,不当做句子成分,一般不可以省略

试比较下边2个雅思写作列句:

In a country that sells food products to other countries, food exportation creates many local jobs, generates revenue for the government, and ultimately helps to improve the living standards of thousands of people.

在食品厂出口国,食品贸易会在本地造就很多就业问题,提升政府部门的财政总收入,并最后改进老百姓的衣食住行水准.(定语从句)

I hold the view that this is a very positive development.

我觉得它是一个十分积极主动的发展趋向.(同位语从句)


以上张老师为大家带来的就是关于雅思写作中同位语的应用的内容

你和雅思的故事 - Go Hard or Go Home

发表于 2019-10-23

雅思写作经验总结

非谓语动词

1. 不定式

不定式(“to do”)除开提升稿子信息内容的作用外,在稿子中能够当做专有名词、形容词、和副词所出任的作用,在稿子中除开谓语外,任何成份都可以当做,表目地、表缘故、表結果、表方法、表标准.构造简约,在许多语境下可替换成名词性从句、定语从句和状语从句.

作主语: It is acceptable for larger people to hit smaller ones - an outcome which may well result in the child starting to bully others. (C10T1)

剖析: “to do”作主语,能够和主语从句交换.例如该句可转化成:That larger ones hit smaller ones is acceptable. 但“it is … to do”的构造显而易见更为紧凑型.

运用:

1. “to hit smaller ones”是真实的主语(一切正常词序:To hit smaller ones is acceptable for larger people – an outcome which may result in the child starting to bully others.)不定式作主语,一般 放到句子最终,用“It”作形式主语,因此出現固定不动配搭“it is … to do”.

2. 另一个,“to do”作主语,谓语为奇数.

作宾语:..., and without the training, the child would not learn how to exploit and develop their talent. (C7T1)

剖析: “how to exploit and develop their mind”能够改变成宾语从句:how they can exploit and develop their talent.改动后符合英语的语法、行得通,但比不上全文应用不定式简约.

运用:

1.“V. + to do”构造的熟练掌握必须学生在平常多累积类似“determine to do”, “mean to do”那样的固定不动形容词.

2. 疑问词“wh- + to do sth.”能够做为固定不动配搭运用于学生优秀作文中.

作同位语: This has the added benefit that parents and children often use them together just for fun, which develops a positive attitude to exercise at an early age. (C9T1)

剖析: “to exercise at an early age”作“attitude”的同位语.实际上,这里能够转化成同位语从句:

…, which develops a positive attitude that children should exercise at an early age.

显而易见,此语境下,应用不定式要比同位语从句更为简约、紧凑型.

作状语: I think to tackle the problem of pollution, cleaner fuels need to be developed. (C8T3)

剖析: 不定式“to tackle the problem of pollution”在句子中作状语,表目地.一般来说,不定式作状语能够转化成目地状语从句,例如该句:

I think cleaner fuels need to be developed so that the problem of pollution can be tackled.

但一样,不定式作状语要比目地状语从句简约、正宗.因此在应用目地状语从句时,学生应最先考虑到是不是能够应用不定式作状语来体现.

作补语: …, education systems are based on the belief that all children can effectively be taught to acquire different skills, ... (C7T1)

运用: “V. + sb./sth. + to do”的构造必须学生多累积像“urge sb. to do”、“inform sb. to do”那样的形容词.

2. 词性标注

与不定式一样,词性标注也具备英语的语法作用:现在分词(v-ing)表积极、已经开展,过去分词(v-ed)表攻击、早已进行,及其逻辑性作用:表标准、表缘故、表結果、表時间、表随着.

作定语: … all children can effectively be taught to acquire different skills, including those associated with sport, art or music. (C7T1)

剖析: “associated”正确引导的以往分词短语作后置定语体现“those”, 与被修饰词中间是攻击关联.

运用:

1. 该分词短语能够还原成:that are associated with sport, art or music, 符合英语的语法,但与分词作状语对比不足简洁.

2. 定语从句中的关系词(that, which, who…)在从句中作主语时:

(1) 从句谓语和先行词是积极关联,则提议应用现在分词(v-ing)代替定语从句.

(2) 从句谓语和先行词是攻击关联,则提议应用过去分词(v-ed)代替定语从句. 作状语: Many people find their rewards unfair, especially when comparing these super salaries with those of top surgeons…. (C6T2)

剖析:

1.疑惑副词“when”+词性标注在语句中作状语,现在分词表积极、表時间.

2. 该句能够还原成:Many people find their rewards unfair, especially when they are compared these super salaries with those of top surgeons….

应用时间状语从句都是行得通的,但和原句对比,该从句构造愈发唠叨、呆板,沒有“wh- + 词性标注”构造灵活性、重中之重清楚.

运用:

疑问词“wh- + to do”能够做为固定不动配搭运用于雅思作文中.

3. 动名词

动名词实质上是个专有名词,只不过是由v. 加了-ing后变过来的,因此专有名词可以出任的成份动名词都可以当做.

作主语: However, reaching the conclusion that change is inevitable is not the same as assuming that ‘change is always for the better’. (C6T4)

剖析: 该主语可还原成“That we reach the conclusion”, 即主语从句.很显而易见,从句构造较繁杂,其重中之重沒有动名词作主语凸出.

运用:

1.动宾结构作主语时,提议应用动名词.

2. 动名词的应用能够防止过多的“people”, “we”, “you”作主语的状况,在保持英语的语法灵活性的另外(考虑了GRA的规定),防止了反复措辞(考虑了LR的规定).

作宾语: At school, children will experience working and living with people from a variety of backgrounds from the wider society. (C8T1)

运用: 提议学生在平常的学习培训中有累积例如“delay doing”, “endure doing”那样后边跟动名词(doing)的形容词.

4. 介词短语

除开非谓语动词,介词短语在语法作用上与非谓语动词相近,都是主从关系句常常应用的替换成方式.介词短语,说白了,即“介词+专有名词语句”的组成,在英文句子中一般 作表语、定语、状语.

作表语: This is because it is the rich and powerful people in our society who are able to impose changes that are in their own interests. (C6T4)

作定语: The pressure from the media is intense and there is little privacy out of the spotlight. (C6T2)

作状语: Secondly, when someone feels they are improving or developing their skills through training opportunities, ... (C10T3)

剖析: 介词短语“through training opportunities”作状语,表方法.

运用: “介词+n.”在语句中一般 作表语、定语、状语,可表時间、表地址、表缘故、表方法.和非谓语动词在语句中的实际效果类似,都可以使稿子简约.

非谓语动词+非谓语动词

A lot of innovations are made with the aim of making money for a few. (C6T4)

剖析: 词性标注(made)+介词短语(with the aim of:表目地)+动名词(making money)+介词短语(for a few: 限制,使內容更实际)

运用: 好多个非谓语动词能够相互之间配搭出現在简单句中,有2个作用:

1. 使所体现的內容更为实际;

2. 兼具逻辑性作用.

非谓语动词+复合句

因为非谓语动词、介词短语与三种复合句都有各的英语的语法作用与逻辑性作用,这种英语的语法企业的有效相结合促使稿子简约、紧凑型且具有思维逻辑.

Those who feel that sports starts salaries are justified might argue that the number of professionals with real talent is very few, and the money is a recognition of the skills and dedication a person needs to be successful. (C6T2)

剖析: 定语从句(“who”正确引导)+(定语从句)“that”正确引导+(定语从句)“that”正确引导+介词短语(with real talent作定语体现“professionals”, 起限制功效,使所体现內容更实际)+介词短语(of the skills作“recognition”的定语,起限制功效,使內容更实际)+不定式(“to be successful”作“need”的补语).

运用: 提议学生适度应用从句,应用前考虑到:该含意是不是能用简单句体现(可用简单句的就无需复合句).此外,在句意详细的状况下,应用相对的非谓语动词和介词短语起限制功效,使文章更实际.

“不定式”包括“从未做”的含意;词性标注实质上是形容词、副词,“现在分词”和逻辑主语是积极关联,而过去分词两者之间是攻击关联;“动名词”实质上是专有名词,故通常作主语、宾语和表语;“介词短语”可替换成形容词、副词,用来表语、定语和状语.


以上范老师为大家带来的就是关于雅思写作中同位语的应用的内容

发表于 2019-10-23

在创作中怎样合理应用介词后置?

1. 短语的组成

中英在短语(phase)的组成上存有很多差别.

尽管中英在限定词的部位上(在中心名词以前)是一致的,可是,中英在后置定语上大不一样,特别是在是写较长英文短语的那时候一般 先写中心名词,再填补后置体现构造.

英语的短语能够用下列的方法展现:限定词 + 形容词 + 中心名词 + 7类后置定语(形容词短语/介词短语/如今分词短语/以往分词短语/不定式短语/定语从句/同位语从句).

除掉二种从句方式,各种各样短语使用方法是大伙儿所不了解的.

因而,露西重中之重解读五种后置定语短语使用方法.

限定词指的是不定冠词、定冠词、数词、物主代词、指示代词;中心名词假如是可数名词,一般在语句中以复数形式或是冠词加可数名词奇数方式出現.

形容词一般 都是放到中心词以前,可是英语中也是后置形容词的用法,这种现象较多是形容词后边还出現了介词加名词的成份.

比如:“an infant's state prior to the introduction of a stimulus”这一短语中,prior做为形容词,表达”择优的;在...以前”就挑选放到名词state以后.

该短语的含意是:在加入刺激物以前的宝宝情况.

形容词的后置使用方法在雅思阅读稿子中突然出现,这给了大家创作非常好的启发.

比如下边语句:

If the pores are large, the water in them will exist as drops _too heavy for surface tension to hold, and it will drain away; but if the pores are small enough, the water in them will exist as thin films, too light to overcome the force of surface tension holding them in place , then the water will be firmly held. _

上边多处画线语句应用的就是说形容词后置方式 .

创作早期,大家能够将这一语句掌握成名词后边加了定语从句(由于定语从句对绝大多数我国大学生来讲较为好掌握),可是省去了关系词which及其联接形容词的be形容词.

那样的话,大家就可以较为畅顺得在创作中应用形容词后置了.

在创作保护生态环境话题讨论中,政府部门必须担负起保护生态环境的义务,能够根据提升具备公信力的相关法律法规基本建设.

_Government should assume the responsibility of environmental protection by enforcing laws and regulation authoritative to the public and industries. _

再例如,尽管互联网上带许多有效、关键信息内容,可是另外也存有爆力和蒙骗,这种对青少年儿童的成才拥有负面影响.

_Despite the useful online materials important to people, on Internet exists an abundance of harmful information, including deception and violence, which has a serious influence on adolescents’ growth. _

这种形容词后置是否让稿子和语句多了许多转变呢?

介词短语后置在英语中十分常用,能够说很简单的一个of加名词短语就是说一个介词后置的主要表现.

可是,让许多朋友觉得疑惑的是,介词应当怎样挑选?

一般的介词全是有一定的含意的,例如in表达“在...里边”,on表达“在...上边”,off表达“离去...”.

可是,在后置中,介词自身 的含意会被模糊不清掉,较多的会依据语句中某一名词或是形容词的要求组成配搭.

英语中的介词后置从汉语翻译的视角上一般能够翻译“的”,例如 “the impact of A on B” 表达A对B的危害,可是对...的注重,则要 “emphasis to sth”.

再例如,“the stages in the development of the farming industry”,用in来表达在现代农业发展的环节.

看得见,较多的配搭全是约定成俗的,可是更是这类“固定不动”让我国大学生甚为头痛;

因而,在开展言语习的键入时,例如在文章阅读时,还要将自身碰到的介词短语记录下来.

那麼,在创作中怎样合理应用介词后置呢?

从形容词下手,即当你应用一个形容词时,何不将其变为一个名词,搭建名词短语.

比如:

Constructing old buildings can preserve the cultures and history.

Construction of old buildings can preserve the cultures and history.

再例如:

Scientists investigate how people recycle battery in daily life.

Investigations from scientists reveal how people recycle battery in daily life.

第一句中动名词作主语,搭建动宾配搭,显示英文中常用句式之一,大家能够略微对语句开展调节,形容词变为名词,将短语做语句开始.

第二句中主谓结构换为介词短语,用抽象名词开头,摒弃一直以来使用者称之为主语的习惯性,都是一个英文句子的高級替换成.

介词后置不但适用雅思考试、toefl的大优秀作文,并且在toefl的综合性创作中也常常碰到.

例如,tpo10英语听力中提及

“whales have essentially disappeared from the area because of human hunters”,

在创作paraphrase中,大家能够体现成

“orcas are likely factors in... because the disappearance of whales has left them with no other choice but to start hunting smaller mammals like the otters for food”.

又比如,这篇英语听力中又提及

“ no one can really find any dead sea otters washing off on Alaskan

beaches”, 转速成

“the absence of dead sea otters washed up the coast suggests that...”.

产生所述的英语思想体现,对大家的优秀作文会有巨大的协助.

2. 非谓语动词

非谓语动词,说白了,指在语句中并不是谓语的动词,包括不定式,动名词和词性标注(现在分词和过去分词).

非谓语动词除开不可以单独作谓语外,能够担负语句的别的成份,例如主语、宾语、状语、定语等.

在上文,大家所解读的名词后置摄像头用法中,存有着三种非谓语动词能够后置摄像头修饰中心名词,即现在分词、过去分词和不定式.

现在分词

如今分词短语(doing sth)后置摄像头修饰表达积极或已经开展,doing的动词由被修饰名词传出.下类的好多个语句:

a man walking on the road

在路上的一个人(一人在路上)

individuals following their own popularly elected leaders

追随她们自身挑选出来的领导干部的本人

创作根据阅读文章,只能看懂稿子的繁杂成份,才有将会写成恰当的非谓语动词用法.

在雅思考试剑桥4 test4 passage1中,出現了下边的语句:

Over the past century, the composition of the human gene pool has not changed appreciably, but with increasing global participation in athletics—and greater rewards to tempt athletes—it is more like that individuals _possessing the unique complement of genes for athletic performance can be identified early. _

划竖线的possessing这一动词和前边individuals关联是积极.

大伙儿能够掌握为,这一语句的谓语动词是can be identified,剩余的动词只有做为一个成份开展修饰.

假如和中心名词是积极关联,就用doing放到名词以后,假如是攻击关联就用done.

那样英文写作就能够防止广为人知的一种不正确,“双谓语”.

例如:

Performance has improved most greatly in events require an intensive burst of energy.(在必须动能强烈暴发的体育运动中,健身运动考试成绩拥有较大的提高)

本句中大家可以寻找2个谓语动词has improved和require,因此是一个病句.

能够将require变为requiring,与前边的名词events组成积极关联.

在创作中也常常会碰到下列汉语翻译:大学生玩网络游戏危害身心健康.

从汉语上看,没有难题,依照意译的方式 :students play computer games is harmful to health.

它是常用的汉语翻译,并且小朋友们不容易思想意识到一切难题,感觉很是畅达.

可是,学习培训过非谓语动词的朋友就会看得出,本句中有2个动词play和is,是一个病句.改动的方式 有许多,给出:

Playing computer games is harmful to students’ health.

It is harmful to play computer games in terms of students’ health.

Students play computer games harmful to their health.


以上薛老师为大家带来的就是关于雅思写作中同位语的应用的内容

发表于 2019-10-23