i The power within each studio
ii The movie industry adapts to innovation
iii Contrasts between cinema and other media of the time
iv The value of studying Hollywood’s Golden Age
V Distinguishing themselves from the rest of the market
vi A double attack on film studios’ power
vii Gaining control of the industry
viii The top movies of Hollywood’s Golden Age
14 Paragraph A __
15 Paragraph B __
16 Paragraph C __
17 Paragraph D __
18 Paragraph E __
19 Paragraph F __
The Hollywood Film Industry
This chapter examines the ‘Golden Age’ of the Hollywood film studio system and explores how a particular kind of filmmaking developed during this period in US film history. It also focuses on the two key elements which influenced the emergence of the classic Hollywood studio system: the advent of sound and the business ideal of vertical integration. In addition to its historical interest, inspecting the growth of the studio system may offer clues regarding the kinds of struggles that accompany the growth of any new medium. It might, in fact, be intriguing to examine which changes occurred during the growth of the Hollywood studio, and compare those changes to contemporary struggles in which production companies are trying to define and control emerging industries, such as online film and interactive television.
The shift of the industry away from 'silent' films began during the late 1920s. Warner Bros.' 1927 film The Jazz Singer was the first to feature synchronized speech, and with it came a period of turmoil for the industry. Studios now had proof that 'talkie' films would make them money, but the financial investment this kind of filmmaking would require, from new camera equipment to new projection facilities, made the studios hesitant to invest at first. In the end, the power of cinematic sound to both move audiences and enhance the story persuaded studios that talkies were worth investing in. Overall, the use of sound in film was well-received by audiences, but there were still many technical factors to consider. Although full integration of sound into movies was complete by 1930, it would take somewhat longer for them to regain their stylistic elegance and dexterity. The camera now had to be encased in a big, clumsy, unmoveable soundproof box. In addition, actors struggled, having to direct their speech to awkwardly-hidden microphones in huge plants, telephones or even costumes.
Vertical integration is the other key component in the rise of the Hollywood studio system. The major studios realized they could increase their profits by handling each stage of a film’s life: production (making the film), distribution (getting the film out to people) and exhibition (owning the theaters in major cities where films were shown first). Five studios, 'The Big Five', worked to achieve vertical integration through the late 1940s, owning vast real estate on which to construct elaborate sets. In addition, these studios set the exact terms of films’ release dates and patterns. Warner Bros., Paramount, 20th Century Fox, MGM and RKO formed this exclusive club. The Little Three, studios - Universal, Columbia and United Artists - also made pictures, but each lacked one of the crucial elements of vertical integration. Together these eight companies operated as a mature oligopoly, essentially running the entire market.
During the Golden Age, the studios were remarkably consistent and stable enterprises, due in large part to long-term management heads - the infamous 'movie moguls' who ruled their kingdoms with iron fists. At MGM, Warner Bros, and Columbia, the same men ran their studios for decades. The rise of the studio system also hinges on the treatment of stars, who were constructed and exploited to suit a studio’s image and schedule. Actors were bound up in seven-year contracts to a single studio, and the studio boss generally held all the options. Stars could be loaned out to other production companies at any time. Studio bosses could also force bad roles on actors, and manipulate every single detail of stars’ images with their mammoth in-house publicity departments. Some have compared the Hollywood studio system to a factory, and it is useful to remember that studios were out to make money first and art second.
On the other hand, studios also had to cultivate flexibility, in addition to consistent factory output. Studio heads realized that they couldn’t make virtually the same film over and over again with the same cast of stars and still expect to keep turning a profit. They also had to create product differentiation. Examining how each production company tried to differentiate itself has led to loose characterizations of individual studios, styles. MGM tended to put out a lot of all-star productions while Paramount excelled in comedy and Warner Bros, developed a reputation for gritty social realism. 20th Century Fox forged the musical and a great deal of prestige biographies, while Universal specialized in classic horror movies.
In 1948, struggling independent movie producers and exhibitors finally triumphed in their battle against the big studios, monopolistic behavior. In the United States versus Paramount federal decree of that year, the studios were ordered to give up their theaters in what is commonly referred to as ‘divestiture’ –opening the market to smaller producers. This, coupled with the advent of television in the 1950s, seriously compromised the studio system’s influence and profits. Hence, 1930 and 1948 are generally considered bookends to Hollywood’s Golden Age.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 20-23 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
20 After The Jazz Singer came out, other studios immediately began making movies with synchronized sound.
21 There were some drawbacks to recording movie actors’ voices in the early 1930s.
22 There was intense competition between actors for contracts with the leading studios.
23 Studios had total control over how their actors were perceived by the public.
Questions 24-26 Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.
THE HOLLYWOOD STUDIOS
Throughout its Golden Age, the Hollywood movie industry was controlled by a handful of studios. Using a system known as 24__ , the biggest studios not only made movies, but handled their distribution and then finally showed them in their own theaters. These studios were often run by autocratic bosses - men known as 25__, who often remained at the head of organisations for decades. However, the domination of the industry by the leading studios came to an end in 1948, when they were forced to open the market to smaller producers - a process known as 26__ .
答题构思：运用速读A段前3句和段尾句的方式 ,第1句和第2句能够协助明确语段疏忽,This chapter examines… Hollywood studio system(这章学习培训好莱坞大片制片厂管理体系的“黄金年代”,讨论英国电影史上这时期中这种非常的制作电影方式的发展趋势.并重中之重科学研究危害經典美国好莱坞制片厂系统软件造成的2个重要因素).对比选择项,iv选择项的“科学研究美国好莱坞‘黄金年代’的使用价值”是对精准定位句的疏忽归纳.
答题构思：运用速读B段前3句和段尾句的方式 ,明确语段疏忽,The shift of… telephones or even costumes(电影产业从无声电影的变化,刚开始于20新世纪20时代末.华纳兄弟电影1927年的影片《爵士舞歌星》是第一部视频语音同歩为特点的影片,随它而成的是电影产业的动荡不安.知名演员们也很费劲,她们迫不得已向着掩藏的话筒说经典台词,这种话筒被愚钝地藏在极大的绿色植物里,电話里或者服装里).对比选择项,ii选择项的“电影产业融入自主创新”是对精准定位句的疏忽归纳,innovation代指的就是说the shift of the industry away from ‘silent’ movie.
答题构思：运用速读C段前3句和段尾句的方式 ,第1句,第2句和段尾句能够协助明确语段疏忽,Vertical integration is the other key component…, essentially running the entire
market(竖直融合是美国好莱坞制片厂系统软件掘起中的另一个关键构成.各大影业公司都观念到,她们能够根据解决影片周期时间中的每1个环节来提升她们的盈利：制做,发售和播映.这八家企业做为1个成熟期的垄断竞争市场,本质上操纵了全部电影产业).对比选择项,vii选择项“得到制造行业的操纵”是对精准定位句的疏忽归纳. Question 17
答题构思：运用速读D段前3句和段尾句的方式 ,前2句能够协助明确语段疏忽,During the Golden Age, … studios for decades(在黄金年代期内,制片厂始终是十分长久平稳的公司,在挺大水平上是因为长期性的管理方法高层住宅—出名的“电影大亨”用铁腕受权执政着她们的帝国.在米高梅、华纳兄弟电影、和哥伦比亚都是一样的人运营个人工作室很多年).对比选择项,i选择项“每一制片厂内的强权”是对精准定位句的疏忽归纳.
答题构思：运用速读E段前3句和段尾句的方式 ,根据前3句明确语段疏忽,On the other hand, … create product differentiation(与此同时,除开平稳地輸出影片,制片厂还要塑造协调能力.制片厂的责任人观念到,她们不可以应用相同的知名演员,一次又一次地制做基本上同样的影片,并期待不断的赢利.她们也迫不得已造就差异化竞争).对比选择项,v选择项“从电影产业中出类拔萃”是对精准定位句的疏忽归纳.
答题构思：速读F段,第1句和倒数第2句能够协助明确语段疏忽,In 1948, … influence and profits(1948年,勤奋的单独电影制作人和展商名录最后获得了与制片厂大佬垄断性个人行为的交锋的获胜.这和20新世纪50时代电视机的出現一块儿,比较严重消弱了制片厂系统软件的知名度和盈利).比照选择项,vi选择项“对制片厂势力的双向严厉打击”是对精准定位句的疏忽归纳.
关键字：The Jazz Singer
精准定位全文：B段第3句“Studios now had proof that 'talkie' films would make them money, but the financial investment this kind of filmmaking would require, from new camera equipment to new projection facilities, made the studios hesitant to invest at first.”
关键字：recording actors’ voices/1930
精准定位全文：B段段尾句“In addition, actors struggled, having to direct their speech to awkwardly-hidden microphones in huge plants, telephones or even costumes.”
精准定位全文：D段3-5句“The rise of the studio system also… to other production companies at any time.”
精准定位全文：D段第6句“Studio bosses could also force bad roles on actors, and manipulate every single detail of stars’ images with their mammoth in-house publicity departments.”
答题构思：运用关键字精准定位到D段第6句,“个人工作室的老总们能逼迫知名演员饰演不太好的人物角色,而且根据她们巨大的內部宣传部控制大牌明星品牌形象的每1个关键点”.判断句是对精准定位句的同义改变,had total control是对manipulate every single detail的同义改变,how actors were perceived是对stars’ images的同义改变.因此参考答案是TRUE.
精准定位全文：C段第1句和第2句“Vertical integration is the other key component in the rise of the Hollywood studio system. The major studios realized they could increase their profits by handling each stage of a film’s life: production, distribution, and exhibition.”
答题构思：融合填词语句的句意和前面早已做过的中心思想题,能够立刻精准定位到C段第1句和第2句,“竖直融合是美国好莱坞制片厂系统软件掘起中的另一个关键构成.各大影业公司都观念到,她们能够根据解决影片周期时间中的每1个环节来提升她们的盈利：制做,发售和播映”.题型句就是说对这2句话的同义改变,在其中mademovies, distributions和showed in theaters是对第2句的同义改变,因此这一全过程就是说精准定位句C段第1句中的vertical integration.
关键字：head of organisations for decades
精准定位全文：D段前2句“During the Golden Age, the studios were remarkably consistent and stable enterprises, due in large part to long-term management heads - the infamous 'movie moguls' who ruled their kingdoms with iron fists. At MGM, Warner Bros, and Columbia, the same men ran their studios for decades.”
答题构思：依据语句的重要一部分who remained at the head of organisations for decades,融合前面早已做过的中心思想题,精准定位到D段前2句,“在黄金年代期内,制片厂始终是十分长久平稳的公司,在挺大水平上是因为长期性的管理方法高层住宅—出名的‘电影大亨’用铁腕受权执政着她们的帝国.在米高梅、华纳兄弟电影、和哥伦比亚都是一样的人运营个人工作室很多年”.题型句就是说对这2句话的同义改变,autocratic bosses是对long-term management heads的同义改变,因此填词语处的标准答案即movie moguls.
关键字：market to smaller producers
精准定位全文：F段第2句“In the United States versus Paramount federal decree of that year, the studios were ordered to give up their theaters in what is commonly referred to as ‘divestiture’ –opening the market to smaller producers.”
答题构思：依据语句的重要一部分open the market to smaller producers,精准定位到F段第2句,在那一年英国对派拉蒙联邦政府影业公司的联邦政府法案中,制片厂被指令舍弃自身的剧场,一般被称作“脱离”—将电影产业朝向较小的制片厂对外开放).题型句就是说对精准定位句的同义改变,因此填词语处的标准答案是“divestiture”.